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All steels having over 0,3% carbon are killed. This is obtained by addition of
high silicon pig iron or an alloy high in silicon in the primary manufacturing
Killed ingots have a minimum of segregation, good structure and a large
cavity in the center.
This steel is characterized by a semiboiling action in the ingot after pouring,
due to rapid evolution of carbon monoxide gas during solidification.
This causes the formation of a honeycomb structure, which, if controlled
compensates for most shrinkage loss.
Rimmed steel ingots have good surface, and there is little or no opportunity
for cavities to form.
The disadvantage of rimmed steel is that impurities are spread throughout the
In addition to teeming hot metal in ingots, there is a process that converts
molten steel to a continuous slab.
Solidification begins as the steel cools in passing through the mold. The slab
can be cut whereever found necessary.
About 300 tons of metal can be cast into solid slabs in about 45 minutes
(Ingot processing would take 12 hours).
blast furnace Hochofen
cast iron Gußeisen
ductile dehnbar, streckbar, biegsam
fluorspar Flußspat (Fluorkalzium)
flux Flußmittel, Zuschlag
gangue material Taubes Gestein
hearth Herd, Schmiedeherd od. -feuer, Schmelz-
bereich (im Zusammenhang)
hoist Lastenaufzug, Winde
malleable hämmerbar, formbar