lingwistyka C5 9Bci C4 85ga
A. ACOUSTIC PHONETICS- deals with the physical properties of speech when sound waves `in the `air'
ALPHABETIC WRITING- written symbols representing a single sound
ARBITRARINESS - no natural connection between sound and its meaning.
AFRICATIVE- a combination of stop and fricative.
ALVEOLAR- Sound articulated by raising the tongue to the ridge behind the teeth.
ARTICULATORY PHONETICS- A branch of linguistics studying the articulary production of speech sound
AUDITORY PHONETICS- A branch of linguistics studying the perception of speech sounds
ANOMALIA- language is full of exceptions
ANALOGIA- language is systematic
ALLOPHONE- all phones are versions of the same phoneme, eg. aspirated vs unaspirated sounds.
B. BOW- WOW THEORY- language developed from onomatopoeic sounds of nature (eg. bow-wow, cuckoo, splash) or natural cries of emotion.
BILABIAL- Sounds articulated by bringing both lips together
C. CULTURAL TRANSMISSION - we don't inherit the language from our parents, we acquire it in the culture of other speakers of it.
CLICKS-are stops articulated with two closures in the oral cavity.
COMMUNICATIVE SIGNALS- intentional, used to communicate something directly
CLOSE SYLLABLE- ends with consonant
COMPLEMENTERY DISTRIBUTION- strict rules how to pronounce word.
CONVENTIONALIST- claim that language was created by people and can be change (Aristoteles)
D. DISPLACEMENT - ability to relate to events far from here and now.
DIVINE SOURCE - humans were provided with language by God.
DIGRAPHY- Two letters representing a single sound
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES- Sound features that mark the difference between phonemes
DIACHRONIC- is form the historical perspective of change the language through time.
DESCRIPTIVE G.- it describes rules how people use it.
E. ELISION- omission of the sound in formal speech.
F. FREE VARIATON- to a certain extend, one can pronounce it move
G. GLOTTAL STOP- The sound produced when the air is stopped completely by tightly glottal stop closed vocal cords.
I INFORMATIVE SIGNALS- unintentional, carrying some kind of indirect information (eg sneezing =having a cold, yawning = being bored)
L. LOGOGRAMS- used by Sumerians in form of cuneiform (`wedge-shaped') writing; the form gives no clue to what is being referred to by the symbols.
LINKING- insert the sound [r] if the word ends and the next one starts with a vowel
LEXICOGRAPHY- The branch of linguistics dealing with making and editing dictionaries
LANGUAGE ETYMOLOGY- The study of history of words
LANGUE- the set of rules that lets language be possible
M. MINIMAL PAIR - two words are identical in form but differ in one phoneme in the same position, such as pat - bat
MINIMAL SET - the same as above, but there are more than two words.
N. NON- PILMONIC- The air used in speaking which does not come from the lungs
NASALS- Sound provided with the lower velum
NATURALISTIC- claims that language is sth given by God (Plato)
O. ORAL GESTURE- SOURCE - language developed as a set of oral gestures, similar to physical gestures.
ORAL- Sounds articulated by raising
OPEN SYLLABLE- ends with vowel.
P. PICTOGRAMS - pictures used to represent particular images in a consistent way.
PHONOTACTICS - describes how the sounds are likely to combine with each other, deals with the sequence or position of English phonemes.
PRODUCTIVITY (open-endedness, creativity) - one can produce unlimited number of utterances using the limited number of elements in the language
PRESCRIPTIVE G- it provides rules how people should use it.
PHONEME- it's a set of distinctive allophones and features
PAROLE- is how language is actually used
R. RECIPROCITY- The idea that any speaker /sender of a single can also be a listener/
S. SYLLABIC WRITING - symbols represent pronunciations of single syllables.
SEMANTICS- The branch of linguistics studying the production of speech sounds
SYNCHRONIC- that is in terms of differences within one language in different places and among different groups at the same time
T. TRILL- The sound produced by a tip of a tongue vibrating
Y. Yo-heave-ho theory - language developed from sounds of people involved in physical effort (esp. when several people had to coordinate with each other)
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